NCRA applauds VCRA on grassroots campaign

Virginia Governor Ralph Northam has signed into law SB 545, which establishes ethical standards and requirements for the provision of court reporting services. The new law prohibits providers of court reporting services from entering into contracts for more than one case. It also prohibits providers of court reporting services from entering into an action or legal proceeding with a party to an action, insurance company, third-party administrator, or any other person or entity that has a financial interest in the case, action, or legal proceeding.

NCRA CEO and Executive Director Marcia Ferranto sent a letter to VCRA’s leadership applauding the association’s members for their successful grassroots campaign that aided in garnering support for the new law.

“I want to personally applaud VCRA and your association’s ability to organize a grassroots campaign to accomplish this legislative victory. The greatest resource that the court reporting profession has is the passion and dedication of its members. Through this initiative, VCRA has shown the nation the true power and influence that court reporters have, and that with a little organizing and hard work, anything is possible.”

To read more about SB 545, visit the Virginia Legislative Information Center.

Career Day at Foothill Technology High School

By Irene Abbey

What had my daughter gotten me into now? As a staff member at Foothill Technology High School in Ventura, Calif., she had signed me up to present at the school’s career day. Yes, I had been talking about how badly reporters were needed and might have even mentioned that I’d like to have a chance to talk to the high school students, but now I was going to have to make good on my intentions.

The first thing I did was go to NCRA’s website, hoping to find some helpful material for presenting court reporting as a career. There were several helpful resources at, including flyers, a PowerPoint presentation, and a short video about the many ways reporting skills can be used for employment. [Ed. Note: NCRA maintains as a website for prospective court reporters.]

Next I made some notes about some of my more interesting experiences as a reporter. I hadn’t taken the depositions of any really famous people, but I did have some interesting court cases to talk about, as well as some CART jobs. I edited the PowerPoint a bit, embedded a link to the online video, and put it on a flash drive. Fortunately, since this is a magnet high school with an emphasis on technology, they had computers and projectors available for showing my presentation. I thought it was the perfect venue for presenting reporting as an IT career.

I made a two-sided handout and made sure I had plenty of my business cards on hand.

The school had provided a few questions that should be answered during my presentation, so I wrote up a one-page narrative answering those questions, and I was set to go.

On Career Day, I packed up my computer, steno machine, browsers, and headed to the school. I was sent to a classroom supervised by a teacher, and I set up my equipment. I had been asked to talk for 20-25 minutes and allow time for questions. The total class period would be one hour.

There are different ways to set up Career Days, and at Foothill High, the students rotate through four presentations during the day, and they are assigned to them by the staff. So no one came because they wanted to hear a court reporter. In fact, in each of my four class periods, only one to two students of the 10 to 15 there had ever heard of a court reporter.

I thought everything went very well. I went through my PowerPoint, played the video, gave my talk, and did a realtime demo. I had brought some samples of interesting transcripts, some of which I’d found on the internet and some personal. For the realtime demo, I had two student volunteers read the transcript while I took it down. I used internet-based realtime streaming, Trialbook by StenoCAT. This meant the students were able to follow my realtime on their phones or tablets (as could anyone anywhere in the world with internet access as long as they had the password). Because the Foothill mascot is a dragon, my password for the day was “Dragons,” adding a little personalization for the students. In addition, the teacher projected my realtime feed onto the large screen at the front of the classroom. Everyone agreed this was pretty cool technology, and they were amazed I could keep up while they were reading fairly fast.

I was pleasantly surprised that the students were very attentive and asked intelligent questions.  The teacher who was supervising our sessions said he was thinking of changing careers. I believe I had several who were very interested in pursuing court reporting, and I heard from school staff that the two sessions the students were buzzing about were the court reporter and the lawyer. I would gladly participate in a career day event again. The day turned out to be really fun and rewarding. In my opinion, court reporting as a career option is the best-kept secret that needs to be a secret no longer.

So what will you do to get the word out about this great job opportunity? Please consider giving some of your time to talk to a group of students or even give a talk at a service club or other community organization. It doesn’t take any special skills. Just talk about what you do. People are interested, and you can be a part of helping to mitigate the shortage of reporters.

Irene Abbey, RDR, CRR, is a freelance court reporter based in Ventura, Calif. She can be reached at

Give back to the profession: Volunteer to serve on an NCRA committee

Don’t miss this chance to get involved. Each year, NCRA members dedicate their time and expertise to shape the future of the profession through committee service. You could be one of those individuals: individuals who are committed to sharing their time and talents; individuals who have specialized skills and expertise; individuals who are willing to be enthusiastic advocates for NCRA and encourage others to get involved.

NCRA currently has more than 20 committees and task forces composed of more than 175 individuals working to advance the goals of the Association and to meet the needs of the membership. NCRA succeeds only because of its member volunteers.

“Through many years of volunteer service to my professional associations, I’ve found that the time investment required is always, without exception, offset by the knowledge and friendships I’ve gained,” says President-Elect Sue Terry, FAPR, RPR, CRR, CRC. Terry is seeking volunteers for NCRA’s 2018-2019 committee appointments.

“Please consider lending your expertise and talents to help us grow and strengthen your NCRA,” Terry adds.

Not only is volunteering fun and rewarding, but volunteers meet fellow committee members, forge new professional relationships, and give back to the profession. NCRA has a committee for you whether your interests lie in governance, education, or technology.

Explore the opportunities and then sign up to volunteer at Some committee assignments are short-term or project-oriented. Please be specific in your interest areas. A committee assignment can’t be guaranteed for everyone, but an earnest attempt to match your background with the 2018-2019 committee needs will be made.

Please consider volunteering your time to serve your profession. Committee work is an amazingly fulfilling personal experience, and your skills and talents will greatly benefit NCRA and the profession.

For more information or to sign up to volunteer, visit

DMACC students pass court reporting speed contest

The Newton Daily News, Des Moines, Iowa, reported on April 5 that three Des Moines Area Community College (DMACC) students were among the 182 court reporting students across the nation who competed in a speed contest sponsored by NCRA. The contest was held during Court Reporting & Captioning Week.

Read more.

CCAC to offer free intro course to court reporting

The Tribune Review reported on March 22 that the Community College of Allegheny County (CCAC) in Pennsylvania will host a free introductory course on court reporting this spring. The A to Z Intro to Machine Shorthand, an Introduction to Stenographic Theory, will be held from April 19 to May 12.

Read more.

UW’s campus exhibits a lack of understanding of Deaf culture

The University of Wisconsin’s student newspaper, The Badger Herald, posted an article on April 3 about the need for captioning as well as a better understanding by faculty and students about the importance of providing captioning for deaf students.

Read more.

STUDENT REPORTING: Adventures in court reporting school

By Rick L. Congdon

There is a fine line between perseverance and stubbornness. For me, court reporting school was the most difficult thing I had ever attempted in life. Mine is a not-so-short story about struggle, and it includes two storms, one being a court reporting student and the other a life-threatening winter storm in Colorado.

I started court reporting school in Topeka, Kan., in late September of 1975. There were 12 people in the class on that first day. Within six weeks, the class had slowly shrunk to seven. The dropout rate for court reporting students has always been high. I knew this from the beginning, but I was determined not to be a quitter. I had decided I really wanted to do this.

In school, I had not been a great student, even though I made the honor roll steadily my last two years of high school and attended college for a year. Nothing caught my interest. With court reporting, I discovered very early on that weak-minded me needed to be serious about practice and study. This wasn’t like my experience in high school or college where I could skip class, make an earnest effort at studying a little, take a test, and manage a passing grade. With this, I needed to be dead-on. This required real work.

I realized this after I found myself falling behind the other students. I was the only male in the class, so I felt a little humiliated by my slow start. Those girls were all naturals; I was not. They played piano, had taken shorthand, were secretaries, and had office skills. They were moving on ahead quickly, and I was falling behind. It was going to be a difficult road for me. I eventually found out that building speed was the most difficult part, and I, after much hard work, began to gradually catch up.

I thought if I out-practiced everyone by taking loads of speed tape daily, I would get over the hump and get ahead. What I found out by December 1976, more than a year into the course, was that I was practicing wrong. I took down hours and hours of tape and devoted little time to readback. Some of the speeds were below my best speed, some were at my best speed, and some were just too fast. I thought that taking tape in this manner would pull me along and speed me up. It actually slowed me down and taught me to drop.

I wasn’t progressing. I was also becoming frustrated and depressed and thinking about dropping out of the course entirely. This wasn’t the road I wanted to be on.

Let me digress by saying that I found out that I was at a point in my court reporter training where I had hit a hump, a steep incline, a plateau, or something I would describe as worse, a complete wall in my search to obtain required speed. I started out trying to visualize how to write what I was hearing, but as dictation speeds increased along the path to gaining speed, I had to be able to write subconsciously, without thinking of the specific key strokes so much. It was a process of listening to what’s being said while writing what’s been said with speed and accuracy.

Sometime in the fall of 1976, I passed three 120 wpm tests with 99 percent accuracy, the required accuracy to advance to the next speed class in our school. Passing my 120s allowed me to go into the 140-160 wpm class, and I was dead set on trying to get my 140s passed before the Christmas break. I would take tape all afternoon, practicing in the wrong manner as I have described before. I got so bogged down and so frustrated that I wasn’t even able to write 120. So when the Christmas break hit, I felt defeated and deflated, so much so that I didn’t even take my steno machine home that Christmas to practice. I decided I was going to spend the next two weeks at home, relaxing, seeing friends, going out, and having a good time. (Back then, in my early twenties, that meant drinking beer, going to bars, and meeting girls.)

Two weeks later, after this period of relaxing, frolic, and mayhem, I returned back to school rested and revived and ready to try to give it another good effort. Our speed test days were on Tuesdays and Fridays back then. We’d take the dictation in the classroom, and then run off to the typing room to type up the tests. I took tape on that Monday, but I switched things. I took three five-minute takes and then read them back as practice. That Tuesday, I passed two of the required 140 wpm tests with 99 percent accuracy. On Friday, I passed the third test.

Passing these tests caused me to think: “What had I been doing wrong?” I analyzed the situation and began to practice differently. From then on, I would take three five-minute sessions of tape at my best speed, and I would read it all back. I found that reading it back helped greatly because it helped solidify in my mind the keystrokes that I was making during dictation. The more I read back, the clearer my notes became, and by taking dictation at my best speed, I was helping stretch my retention length in my brain.

By that following fall, I had passed my 200s and felt I was ready to take the Certified Shorthand Reporter (CSR) test. The testing date was in October, and the pressure was on. I wanted to get my certification and get out of school. I felt I did very well on the test, or so I thought. I had gotten it all down and transcribed within the allotted time, but I did not have enough time to proof my work against my paper notes. The time allowed for the CSR test back then was three hours. When the results came back in November, I was devastated! I had failed! To this day, the only thing I can surmise is that I must have missed a fold of notes in transcribing.

This meant six more months of school, practicing, practicing, practicing some more, and working a part-time job that I hated. I was sick of all of that. I wanted to get going and get on with my life and my future!

By December, the classmates that had managed to pass the October CSR test had moved on to jobs and their future lives, and there I was, stuck, dejected, defeated, depressed, and unhappy. By February, I was angry — not at anyone else — but angry at myself for having failed. I needed to learn to transcribe faster so that I could have enough time at the end to proof my notes against my transcription.

About that time, a female friend of mine from back home had moved to Colorado and was now living in Estes Park. Let’s call her Julie. I had an interest in her but we had never dated. I contacted her and told her about things, and we talked about me coming to Estes Park to see her.

Now, I’d had that part-time job for about eight months, and it was very hard work. I had to go through about 35 delivery trucks every evening and pull packages that were headed for certain zip codes in western Kansas. They wouldn’t let me come to work before 6 p.m., and the truck leaving for western Kansas had to be gone by 9:30 p.m., so it was very fast work. It wore me out every day. Those trucks  were all full of packages, and you had to climb over the packages, checking for zip codes.

By February of 1978, I had managed to save some money, and I was going to be receiving a tax refund, so I had the idea and perhaps the need for a late February vacation and a visit to my friend, Julie. I had in mind that maybe I would move to Colorado eventually, find another part-time job, continue to study, and then take the CSR test there. Maybe this was just the move I needed to make! But in case things didn’t work out in Colorado, I wanted to try to hold on to my job in Kansas, just for safekeeping. So that Monday, I went in to work early and asked to speak with my boss.

He said, “What do you need?”

I said, “Can I have a week off? I need to go do something.”

He said, “No.”

I said, “Okay. I quit.”

And with that, I was out of a job and about to embark on a much-needed vacation to Estes Park and Julie.

I immediately went and had new tires put on my 1971 Monte Carlo. I went home and told my roommate what I was about to do. That Tuesday morning, I packed all of my things in the car, said goodbye to the roommate, and hit the road. Only one problem: I hadn’t bothered to check the weather report. Dead of winter in northern Kansas with anticipated travel to Colorado means checking the weather report for possible winter storm conditions. Not smart of me to ignore that! When I was young, I was full of stubborn arrogance.

Traveling down I-70 in Kansas headed west to Colorado gave me a feeling of freedom at first. Then, after a couple of hours, snow began to fall, and it got heavier and heavier. Soon it was a full-fledged winter storm I was driving through. With all of the stuff in my auto, which included everything I had in my apartment — my clothes, TV, court reporting equipment, books, and so on — the interior of my car was so overloaded that the warm air didn’t have enough room to circulate to keep the windows from fogging up.

The storm was throwing wet snow and slush on the windows that would freeze instantly to the wipers. I had to frequently stop and beat the ice off the wipers. The wind was blowing snow across the highway, and it was piling up higher and higher. The wind gusts were a constant 30 mph with sudden gusts up 50 to 60 mph. These gusts would rock my car back and forth. I struggled to keep the car on the road.

I must have been the last person out of Kansas before they closed the gate. It was near midnight when I got to the Denver area, but to conserve money, I decided I would drive on to Estes Park and find a place where I could park the car and spend the night, starting the car every once in a while to keep warm.

When I started to get sleepy, I would play the radio loudly, I would sing, or I would roll the window down a bit to get some fresh air. I did everything I knew to do to stay awake and keep going. Soon I woke up and found that I was traveling 55 mph down the center of the low-slung ditch. I knew I didn’t want to slow down and get stuck, so I kept my speed and sought to edge myself back up on the highway one tire at a time, so as to not start my auto spinning down the highway.

I got the left two tires up on the highway rather easily, but the second two were a problem because the highway had about a two-inch lip at the shoulder that I had difficulty getting over. I was halfway in the right lane and halfway on the shoulder of the roadway. I finally had to just chance it, so I popped the Monte Carlo to the left abruptly. The right rear tire caught the lip, and although I had popped the auto up onto the four-lane road, I was now spinning to my left at 50 mph down the center of a very slick highway. I spun around three times in the center of the roadway, praying all the while: “Nobody hit me, please!”

The car finally stopped, and the engine died. I was facing in the wrong direction. I quickly started the car and got it headed in the right direction. I thought, “Whew! That was close.” I then noticed that there were no other vehicles on the road except me, and snow plows were going in the opposite direction.

So I headed on down the highway, determined to make my intended destination. I had not gone far when I discovered that I had a flat tire. I must have run over a bottle or something in the ditch. So I pulled the car over on the shoulder. There I was, in the middle of the night on a deserted road that was probably closed, surrounded by snow in the middle of a winter storm that wasn’t letting up anytime soon. I thought about just sitting there with the motor running and the heater on, and then the thought occurred to me that if I had an exhaust leak, the carbon monoxide might asphyxiate me. So this could mean life or death for me.

I made the decision to unload everything out of the trunk, get the jack out, jack up the car, and put the spare tire on. I had a thick navy coat and a pair of gloves, but I could not find my sock cap. I got out in this blizzard, emptied everything into the ditch from the trunk, and got busy replacing the tire. However, the new tires were put on with an air-impact tool, and I could not get the last lug nut to loosen. In fact, I was struggling so much with the last lug nut that I was grinding off metal. So now my bad situation just got worse!

The storm kept blowing snow and sleet, and I would get in the car and warm up with the heater. (To this day, I can still feel the hard sleet pounding into my open ears.) The snow would melt from my head and face and coat. Soon I was very wet. I’d get out to give the lug nut one more shot. I’d put all my weight and strength into it. I would slip and fall and bang my knees into the hard surface. I’d slip and hurt my fingers. I’d grind metal off and get back in the car frozen.

By now, a full range of emotions were hitting me. I was scared. I was angry. I was swearing. I was praying. It was crazy! I’d thaw out again and again. I was frozen, wet, and frustrated. This time, I decided I would chip down through the ice to the asphalt. I would chip the ice away and get a good foothold and press all of my weight on that lug nut with all of the strength that I could muster, and hopefully I could get the darn thing to loosen up and come off.

I made that one last attempt and finally I was able to get the lug nut to loosen, and as fast as I could, I took the old tire and wheel off and put on the spare. Then I put all of my stuff back into the trunk. I got back into the car wet, frozen, and thankful. I headed on down the road.

Then I noticed I needed gas, so I searched for a place to get gas. It took a while, but I finally found a truck stop on the side of the road, so I pulled in. As I got out of the car, a kid I would judge to be about 16 years old who apparently worked at the truck stop said, “Did you just come in off that road?” I said, “Yes.” He said, “That’s been closed for the past three hours!”

I eventually did make it to Estes Park, but things there didn’t work out as planned. Julie’s new boyfriend, who I didn’t know about, wasn’t too happy about me showing up for a visit. So after a few days of time spent in Estes Park, I went down to Denver and got a hotel room. I spent a few days in Denver and went to one of the court reporting schools there, looking for some information. I met a nice girl who was a student there. We hit it off. Later I took her out for dinner and a movie.

I even found a job working for the telephone company that week. I was to begin working that next Monday, but, instead, I decided to return to Kansas. I left Denver and went and stayed with a court reporter friend and his family in Wichita for the weekend. That Monday, I went back to the job I had quit. I asked my boss if he had found my replacement yet.

He said, “No.”

So I asked him, “Well, could I have my job back?”

He said, “Okay.”

So I went back to work at that same job. A month later, I took the Kansas CSR test and passed, and in April of 1978, I began my career as a court reporter.

I hope that maybe some court reporting students will read this and realize that court reporting is an adventure, even when you are in school. You need perseverance to succeed. You also need to make good decisions. All of us who have gone down this road have had to work hard to get through school and get certified. It’s a mental test of your ability to cope and to learn, but nothing worthwhile is achieved without great effort! You have to decide that, come hell or high water, and no matter what life throws at you, you are going to persevere and succeed.

Rick L. Congdon, RMR, is a freelancer based in Fort Smith, Ark. He can be reached at

NCRA Launches Online A to Z Intro to Steno Machine Shorthand Program

NCRA launched an online version of its popular A to Z Intro to Steno Machine Shorthand program on March 30, increasing the accessibility of the free six-week course to interested participants. The program provides the opportunity for participants to learn the alphabet in steno, write on a real steno machine, and decide whether an education in court reporting or captioning is for them.

The NCRA A to Z online program is a hybrid course combining both live online instructor sessions with videos and dictation materials for self-paced practice. The class meets online live once a week for 60-90 minutes.

“The online A to Z Intro to Steno Machine Shorthand program complements NCRA’s popular onsite program,” said Cynthia Bruce Andrews, NCRA’s Senior Director, Education and Certification.

“The virtual program provides the opportunity for those who do not have access to an onsite program to experience it online. The self-guided curriculum is easy to follow and has been designed to let participants learn the basics of steno writing. With the increase of online education, NCRA felt strongly that the A to Z program would be a natural fit to an online method of learning.”

Students who sign up for the online A to Z program can lease a steno machine for $50 for the duration of the course from NCRA partners Stenograph and ProCat. Students will also need a computer (camera is optional), microphone, and headphones or earbuds.

Students interested in the A to Z online program can sign up for sessions in their time zone. April 16 is the deadline to register for the first program that begins on the dates below.

  • Monday, April 23 at 6:30 PM ET
  • Tuesday, April 24 at 6:00 PM MT
  • Thursday, April 26 at 8:00 PM CT
  • Thursday, April 26 at 6:00 PM PT

“NCRA wants to thank its program partners, Stenograph and ProCAT, for assisting with the success of the A to Z Intro to Steno Machine Shorthand by helping to make machines available at little cost to program participants,” said Marcia Ferranto, NCRA Executive Director and CEO.

“NCRA would also like to thank The Varallo Group, Worcester, Mass., especially Cedar Bushong, CLVS, and Patrick Blaskopf, CLVS, for their work with the online dictation, and the College of Court Reporting, Hobart, Ind., for its support in helping to make the online program a reality with the use of their learning management platform Moodle,” Ferranto added.

The Association also sends a huge thank you to the members of its A to Z Task Force who include: Chair Nancy Varallo, RDR, CRR, Worcester, Mass.; Mary Bader, RPR, Eau Claire, Wis.; Huey Bang, RMR, CRR, Pass Christian, Miss.; Jen Krueger, RMR, CRI, CPE, Parma, Ohio; Jeff Moody, Valparaiso, Ind.;  Kelly Moranz, CRI, Parma, Ohio; Jonathan Moretti, CLVS, Kalamazoo, Mich.; Kathleen Silva, RPR, CRR,  Andover, Mass.; Doreen Sutton, RPR, Scottsdale, Ariz.; Stacy Drohosky, RPR, CRR, CRI, Hammond, Ind.; Lynette Eggers, CRI, CPE, Chicago, Ill.; and Eileen Beltz, CRI, CPE, Avon, Ohio.

“Together, NCRA and its partners and member volunteers are committed to increasing the number of students entering court reporting and captioning programs to help fill the growing number of jobs in these fields,” Ferranto said.

NCRA launched its onsite A to Z program in February 2017 in conjunction with Court Reporting & Captioning Week. Volunteer NCRA members serve as program leaders working with small groups of participants as they learn how to write the alphabet in steno. The program does not follow any particular theory. NCRA provides program leaders with free training materials after completing and submitting a program leader Memorandum of Understanding (MOU). There are onsite programs currently available in approximately 15 states.

NCRA is currently seeking 10 to 12 member volunteers with online teaching experience to serve as online facilitators for its virtual A to Z program. If you are interested in volunteering or learning more about the program, contact Cynthia Bruce Andrews at

Additional information about both the onsite and online A to Z programs, including volunteering to become a program leader, registering for a class, and frequently asked questions, can be found at, or by contacting

Planet Depos celebrates Court Reporting & Captioning Week with student scholarships

Planet Depos recently announced the winners of three $1,000 cash scholarships the firm sponsored in honor of 2018 Court Reporting & Captioning Week. The three winners were selected out of 47 applicants based on their answers to several questions. All applicants were required to be in high-speed classes or have graduated within the past year.

The winners included: Kolby Garrison from Greensboro, N.C., who attends the College of Court Reporting in Hobart, Ind.; Eun “Grace” Kwahk from Buena Park, Calif., who attends South Coast College in Orange, Calif.; and Nephtali Diaz from Pasadena, Texas, who attends Alvin Community College in Alvin, Texas.

The winners answered the following questions:

  • What motivated you to persevere when faced with a challenge or disappointment?
  • What do you feel is your greatest strength? What do you feel is your greatest weakness?
  • Where do you see yourself professionally in five years from now?

Planet Depos, a global firm based in Washington, D.C., invited three independent court reporters to judge the entries. The judges were provided no information related to the identity or location of the applicant. Judges included NCRA members:

Lisa Knight, FAPR, RDR, CRR, from Littleton, Colo.; Michael Hensley, RPR, from Dublin, Calif.; and Nancy Mahoney, RPR, from Cranford, N.J.

“As part of the mission of Planet Institute, we feel it is important to support both the court reporting schools and the students themselves. Schools provide the education that the students need to enter the workforce. Planet Institute offers internship and mentoring opportunities to bridge the gap between school and career,” said Kathy DiLorenzo, FAPR, RDR, CRR, CRC, director of U.S. Court Reporting for Planet Depos.

“As court reporters, we know all too well what it takes to reach the final speeds of the program, so we decided to reward three outstanding students who were nearing completion. It seemed only fitting to offer the scholarships during NCRA’s 2018 Court Reporting & Captioning Week.”

Planet Depos launched its Planet Institute, a student-to-career mentoring program, during Court Reporting & Captioning Week in 2016.

According to DiLorenzo, the firm anticipated about 30 entries and was delighted when nearly 50 applicants applied for the scholarships. To get the word out about the scholarships, the firm posted a link to the application on various student and court reporting social media sites, as well as notifying each school by direct email.

“We were very pleased with the serious thought and overall effort of the students in answering the questions posed. We learned of their challenges. We learned of their disappointments and their personal triumphs. We learned of their perseverance. We learned of their hopes for the future,” said DiLorenzo. “Each of the winners expressed sincere gratitude for the opportunity to compete for the scholarships. Planet Depos is proud to support the future generation of court reporters.”



Why closed captioning matters

The Delta Statement posted an editorial on April 1 that addresses the importance of providing captioning in movie theaters.

Read more.